Posts Tagged ‘Mahabharata’
चत्वारि भारते वर्षे युगानि भरतर्षभ
कृतं तरेता दवापरं च पुष्यं च कुरुवर्धन
4 पूर्वं कृतयुगं नाम ततस तरेतायुगं विभॊ
संक्षेपाद दवापरस्याथ तथ पुष्यं परवर्तते
5 चत्वारि च सहस्राणि वर्षाणां कुरुसत्तम
आयुः संख्या कृतयुगे संख्याता राजसत्तम
6 तत्र तरीणि सहस्राणि तरेतायां मनुजाधिप
दविसहस्रं दवापरे तु शते तिष्ठति संप्रति
7 न परमाण सथितिर हय अस्ति पुष्ये ऽसमिन भरतर्षभ
गर्भस्थाश च मरियन्ते ऽतर तथा जाता मरियन्ति च (Link)
In this passage the name of kaliyuga is given as puSya.
Satya Sarada Kandula
“Tri-coloured clouds with their extremities white and red and necks black, charged with lightning, and resembling maces (in figure) envelope the sun in both twilights. I have seen the sun, the moon, and the stars to be all blazing. No difference in their aspect is to be noted in the evening. I have seen this all day and all night. All this forbodes fear. On even the fifteenth night of the lighted-fortnight in (the month of) Kartika the moon, divested of splendour, became invisible, or of the hue of fire, the firmament being of the hue of the lotus.” A part of Dhritarashtra’s lament before the war : Book 6 : Mahabharata
- One chariot, one elephant, five foot-soldiers, and three horses form one Patti;
- three pattis make one Sena-mukha;
- three sena-mukhas are called a Gulma;
- three gulmas, a Gana;
- three ganas, a Vahini;
- three vahinis together are called a Pritana;
- three pritanas form a Chamu;
- three chamus, one Anikini;
- and an anikini taken ten times forms, as it is styled by those who know, an Akshauhini.
- O ye best of Brahmanas, arithmeticians have calculated that the number of chariots in an Akshauhini is twenty-one thousand eight hundred and seventy. The measure of elephants must be fixed at the same number.
- O ye pure, you must know that the number of foot-soldiers is one hundred and nine thousand, three hundred and fifty, the number of horse is sixty-five thousand, six hundred and ten.
- These, O Brahmanas, as fully explained by me, are the numbers of an Akshauhini as said by those acquainted with the principles of numbers.
- O best of Brahmanas, according to this calculation were composed the eighteen Akshauhinis of the Kaurava and the Pandava army.
- Time, whose acts are wonderful assembled them on that spot and having made the Kauravas the cause, destroyed them all. Bhishma acquainted with choice of weapons, fought for ten days. Drona protected the Kaurava Vahinis for five days. Karna the desolator of hostile armies fought for two days; and Salya for half a day. After that lasted for half a day the encounter with clubs between Duryodhana and Bhima. At the close of that day, Aswatthaman and Kripa destroyed the army of Yudishthira in the night while sleeping without suspicion of danger.”
Authorship and Copyright Notice : All Rights Reserved : Satya Sarada Kandula
Source : Anusasana Parva of the Mahabharata, as translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli.
Dharmaraja asked Bhishma about the effect of making Danas under different nakshatras.
Then Bhishma told him what Narada had explained to Devaki. (..and I now share it with you).
Devaki then explained it to her daughters-in-law, the wives of Sri Krishna.
- ‘By gratifying, O blessed lady, deserving Brahmanas with Payasa mixed with ghee, under the constellation Krittika one attains to regions of great happiness. (Easy to do even today)
- Under the constellation Rohini, one should for freeing oneself from the debt one owes to the Brahmanas make gift unto them of many handfuls of venison along with rice and ghee and milk, and other kinds of edibles and drinks.
- One giving away a cow with a calf under the constellation called Somadaivata (or Mrigasiras), proceeds from this region of human beings to a region in heaven of great felicity.
- One undergoing a fast and giving away Krisara mixed with sesame, transcends all difficulties in the next world, including those mountains with rocks sharp as razors. (This must be for Arudra).
- By making gifts, O beautiful lady, of cakes and other food under the constellation Punarvasu one becomes possessed of personal beauty and great fame and takes birth in one’s next life in a family in which there is abundance of food.
- Making a gift of wrought or unwrought gold, under the constellation Pushya, one shines in effulgence like Soma himself in regions of surrounding gloom.
- He who makes a gift, under the constellation Aslesha, of silver of a bull, becomes freed from every fear and attains to great affluence and prosperity.
- By making a gift, under the constellation Magha, of earthen dishes filled with sesame, one becomes possessed of children and animals in this world and attains to felicity in the next.
- For making gifts unto Brahmanas, under the constellation called Purva-Phalguni of food mixed with Phanita the giver observing a fast the while, reward is great prosperity both here and hereafter.
- By making a gift, under the constellation called Uttara-Phalguni, of ghee and milk with rice called Shashthika, one attains to great honours in heaven. Whatever gifts are made by men under the constellation of Uttara-Phalguni produce great merit, which, again, becomes inexhaustible. This is very certain.
- Observing a fast the while, the person that makes, under the constellation Hasta, a gift of a car with four elephants, attains to regions of great felicity that are capable of granting the fruition of every wish.
- By making a gift, under the constellation Chitra, of a bull and of good perfumes, one sports in bliss in regions of Apsaras like the deities sporting in the woods of Nandana.
- By making gifts of wealth under the constellation Swati, one attains to such excellent regions as one desires and wins besides great fame.
- By making gifts, under constellation Visakha, of a bull, and a cow that yields a copious measure of milk, a cart full of paddy, with a Prasanga for covering the same, and also cloths for wear, a person gratifies the Pitris and the deities attains to inexhaustible merit in the other world. Such a person never meets with any calamity and gratifies the Pitris and the deities and attains to inexhaustible merit in the other world. Such a person never meets with any calamity and certainly reaches heaven. By making gifts unto the Brahmanas of whatever articles they solicit, one attains to such means of subsistence as one desires, and becomes rescued from hell and every calamity that visits a sinner after death. This is the certain conclusion of the scriptures.
- By making gifts, under the constellation Anuradha of embroidered cloth and other vestments and of food, observing a fast the while, one becomes honoured in heaven for a hundred Yugas.
- By making a gift under the constellation Jyeshtha, of the potherb called Kalasaka with the roots, one attains to great prosperity as also to such an end as is desirable.
- By making unto Brahmanas a gift under the constellation Mula, of fruits and roots, with a restrained soul, one gratifies the Pitris and attains to a desirable end.
- By making under the constellation Purvashadha, a gift, unto a Brahmana conversant with the Vedas and of good family and conduct, of cups filled with curds, while one is in the observance of a fast, one takes birth in one’s next life in a family possessed of abundant kine.
- One obtains the fruition of every wish, by making gifts, under the constellation Uttarashadha, of jugs full of barley-water, with ghee and inspissated juice of sugarcane in abundance.
- By making a gift under the conjunction called Abhijit, of milk with honey and ghee unto men of wisdom, a righteous person attains to heaven and becomes an object of attention and honour there.
- By making under the conjunction Sravana, a gift of blankets or other cloth of thick texture, one roves freely through every region of felicity, riding on a white car of pure resplendence.
- By making with a restrained soul, under the constellation Dhanishtha, a gift of a vehicle with bulls yoked thereto, or heaps of cloths and wealth, one at once attains to heaven in one’s next life.
- By making gifts, under the constellation Satabhisha, of perfumes with Aquilaria Agallocha and sandalwood, one attains in the next world to the companionship of Apsaras as also eternal perfumes of diverse kinds.
- By making gifts, under the constellation Purva-Bhadrapada, or Rajamasha, one attains to great happiness in the next life and becomes possessed of an abundant stock of every kind of edibles and fruits.
- One who makes, under the constellation Uttara, a gift of mutton, gratifies the Paris by such an act attains to inexhaustible merit in the next world.
- Unto one who makes a gift, under the constellation Revati, of a cow with a vessel of white copper for milking her, the cow so given away approaches in the next world, ready to grant the fruition of every wish.
- By making a gift, under the constellation Aswini, of a car with steeds yoked thereto, one is born in one’s next life in a family possessed of numerous elephants and steeds and cars, and becomes endued with great energy.
- By making, under the constellation Bharani, a gift unto the Brahmanas of kine and sesame, one acquires in one’s next life great fame and an abundance of kine.’
Quoted From : http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/dec252005/2174.pdf
“It is stated that Bhisma died on Maga S 8 on the winter solstice day, i.e. at the start of Uttarayana. At present, this tithi occurs between 20 January and 20 February, which differs from the date of winter solstice, 22nd December, by 29 to 60 days. This difference is caused by the precession of the earth’s axis around the ecliptic poles in the retrograde ircuit in 25,725 years, as stated earlier. It causes a slow backward shift of equinoxes and solstices with respect to the nakshatras and the lunar months at the rate of one day in 71 years. As it would take 2060 to 4260 years to produce a shift of 29 to 60 days, the date of Bhisma’s death and consequently that of the Mahabharata war would be 1200 ± 1000 BC. This date can be pushed back to the Krtttikâ epoch of 2300 BC, if we put the beginning of Dhanisthâ exactly opposite to Maghâ (Alpha Leonis).”
All Rights Reserved : Satya Sarada Kandula
Notes Quoted from : “http://www.boloji.com/astro/00325a.htm”
- Surya Siddhanta states that sun was 54 degrees away from vernal equinox when Kaliyuga started on a new moon day, corresponding to February 17/18, 3102 BCJ, at Ujjain (75deg47minE 23deg 15min N).
- Varaha Mihira stated that 2526 years before start of Saka count [Brihat Samhita Ref-3] as per text below: When Saptarishis (ursa major) was near Magha Yudhistira was king 2526 years before Saka time
- Presently, traditional Sanatana Dharma followers consider that Kaliyuga started at 3102 BCJ, when Sri Krishna passed away, and that Mahabharata war occurred in 3138 BCJ. Millennium year 2000 AD is Kali 5102
- The Bhishma Parva and Udyoga Parva (specific chapters of Mahabharata) provide considerable astronomical/astrological descriptions and omens as the Mahabharata war was approaching. It describes a period of draught, with many planetary positions.
- Then there is this clear reference to pair of eclipses occurring on 13th day as shown below. Fourteenth day, Fifteenth day and in past sixteenth day, but I have never known the Amavasya (New Moon day) to occur on the thirteenth day. Lunar eclipse followed by solar eclipse on thirteenth day is in a single lunar month etc…..
- Mahabharata text also refers to retrograde motions of planets prior to war and provides their location with reference to 27/28 Vedic star locations. Mahabharata Drona Parva also refers to Jayadhratha’s killing during a dark episode on 13th day of the war, which some consider as another short solar eclipse.
Analysis of all eclipses visible at Kurukshethra (Location where Mahabharata war took place, north of New Delhi, Longitude 76 deg 49 min East, Latitude 29 deg 59 Min North) from 3300 BC to about Buddha-Mahavira-Parshvanaatha time of about 700BC. Analysis of the time between successive eclipses, specifically time between end of one and beginning of other has been made, with a view to look at astronomical feasibility of back-to-back eclipses in 13 days, using modern astronomical computer software.
There are about 150 lunar eclipses per century.During period 3500BC to 700 BC, nearly 4350 lunar eclipses have probably occurred.
- About 240 solar eclipses occur every century. During period 3500BC to 700 BC, nearly 6960 Solar Eclipses have occurred.
- Astronomical calculations have been greatly improved since past 30 years, particularly with considerable amount of trajectory work conducted in Moon and other scientific projects. High accuracy computer models and software have been developed. These are validated against databases from US Naval Observatory’s Interactive computer Ephemeris, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. One such code is LodeStar Pro copy righted by Wayne C Annala in 1994 [Ref- 7]. The Lodestar Pro was checked for historical eclipses of 1000-2500 BC from clay tablet records of Mesopotamia area presently available with British Museum. Wayne Mitchell has analyzed this data [Ref-8]. Lodestar Pro provided excellent match with ref-8.
- Nearly 673 solar and lunar eclipses occurred in pairs of time gap of about nominal 15 days corresponding to roughly half lunar month. We need to search amongst these 673 for eclipse pairs visible in Kurukshethra, which occurred in “Thirteen” days.
- A very detailed scan of all the visible lunar and solar eclipses for every year from 3300BC to 700 BC was made on the Lodestar software for Kurukshethra location. These were tabulated and plotted. Maximum eclipse time gap (end of one eclipse and beginning of next eclipse for naked eye observers) was found to be about 379 hours while the minimum was about 332 hours. A plot of time gap between back-to-back eclipses versus eclipse pair number is shown below. (This time corresponds to maximum to maximum)
- Nearly 672 pairs of eclipses occurred on earth, which in principle may have been visible at Kurukshethra. Amongst these, nearly 32 pairs would be occurring for period less than 14 days. Many of these were found to be weak penumbral eclipses of moon, and solar eclipses had such low obscurity as to raise the issue whether any body could see them.
- Six pairs of “thirteen day” eclipses could be seen unambiguously. After serious analysis of all the eclipses, six eclipse pairs from 3129 BCJ, 2599 BCJ, 2056 BCJ, 1853 BCJ, 1708 BCJ and 1397 BCJ clearly are the best candidates for Mahabharata war year from “thirteen day” eclipse pairs view point.
Items in red show retrograde or Vakri motion
|Graha (Planet)||3129BCJ||Mahabharata text|
|Shukra (Venus)||U Phalguni||Poorva Phalguni|
|Ravi (Sun Solar)||U Phalguni||Rohini|
The location of the planets at the time of eclipse pair is shown in table above. Clearly, only Brihaspati, and Shukra are the only planets near locations indicated in the Mahabharata text. This date of 3129 BCJ is a serious candidate date for consideration of Mahabharata war.
The first and oldest eclipse pair from 3129 BC is unique. These fit the Puranic description that Sri Krishna passed away in 3102 BCJ, which is 27 years after the war. Our study confirms that Kaliyuga could have started in 3102 BCJ.
The second date 2559 BCJ is also unique in that Varaha Mihira stated that 2526 before start of Saka, Yudhishtira was the ruling king. If it Saka was Vikrama it would make Yudhistira as king in 2583 BCJ, which is before Mahabharata War. Yudhistira was also king for a short time before war, before he lost it in a game of dice to Sakuni/Duryodhana. This date is also an excellent candidate for Mahabharata war. There is another event that occurs in 2559 BC. While the eclipse pair occurred in lunar month Shravana, there is another short solar eclipse in Pushya. On 13th day of Mahabharata war, it is said that Jayadhratha was killed when Sri Krishna covered the sun for a short time just before the sunset. This event could be looked upon as a solar eclipse. A study of year 2559 shows that another solar eclipse did occur in Pushya lunar month (Julian Dec 06, 2559) some 40 days before the winter solstice (Uttara ayana).
The other pairs are not good candidates for a set of reasons given in the original article.