- The Surya Siddhantam was taught by Surya Deva to Maya Danava towards the end of Kruta Yuga.
- Source of the Surya Siddhantam: Divine Revelation or Keen Observation?
- Maya Danava : At this link you can find the life-story and accomplishments of composer of the Surya Siddhantam.
- Design of the hydraulic powered revolving model of the solar system, used as an instrument to predict eclipses etc given in the Surya Siddhantam.
Here, I present some of the contents of the Surya Siddhantam for easy understanding and reference.
The Surya Siddhantam bows to the Nirguna Brahma and tells of the incident of Maya’s Tapas which results in his learning Astronomy directly from an Amsa of Surya. We interpret this to mean that Maya learnt astronomy by direct observation as did all the other Rshis and Munis.
Chapter 1: Time and Its Measurement:
There are 2 kinds of time.
One is the creator and destroyer of all things.
The second is the time that we observe. Observable time is again of 2 kinds, what can be measured (Murta) and what cannot be measured (Amurta) either because it is too small or because it is too big.
Amurta begins with a Truti (*1/33750 seconds as per Pandit Bapu Deva Sastri).
Murta begins with a Prana (*4 seconds as per Pandit Bapu Deva Sastri).
6 Pranas is a Pala.
60 Palas is a Ghatika.
60 Ghatikas is a Nakshatra Ahoratra. (A sidereal – star based day.)
30 Nakshatra Ahoratras make a Nakshatra Masa.
30 Savana days (terrestrial days counted from sunrise to sunrise) make a Savana Month.
30 Lunar days make a Lunar Month.
A Savana or Solar Month is the time it takes the Sun to Cross a Rasi (Zodiac Sign – Aries (Mesha) etc).
12 Solar Months = 1 solar year and this makes 1 day of the Devas.
An DevaAhoratra and an AsuraAhoratra are the reverse of each other. (*When it is day for the Devas it is night for the Asuras as per Pandit Bapu Deva Sastri)
360 Ahoratras of the Devas make a year(vatsara) of the Devas.
12000 years of the Devas make a Caturyuga (set of 4 yugas).
These 4 Yugas including their Sandhyas and Sandhyamsas (sixth part) (eves, seams, period where one yuga ends and another begins) consist of 4,320,000 solar years.
The yugas that make up a Caturyuga are in the 4:3:2:1 proportion, which is the number of legs Dharma stands on each of these Yugas. (Dharma stands on 4 feet in Kruta Yuga, 3 in Thretha Yuga, 2 in Dwapara Yuga and only 1 in Kaliyuga – Satya).
71 Caturyugas make a Manvantara.
At the end of a Manvantara, 1728000 years, is called its Sandhi. There is a pralaya at the end of every Manvantara.
A Kalpa starts with a Sandhi as long as a Kruta Yuga and follows with 14 Manvantaras and their Sandhis. (Totally 15 sandhis and 14 Manvantaras).
Creation is destroyed at the end of every Kalpa.
1000 CaturYugas (Mahayugas) make a kalpa. One Kalpa equals the day of Brahma and one Kalpa equals his night.
Brahma’s duration is for a 100 years and half of his lifespan is now over. This is his 51st year. 6 Manvanataras are over and of the 7th manvantara called Vaivaswata, 27 Caturyugas are over. Of the 28th Caturyuga Krita Yuga has passed away.
(1 Kruta Yuga duration Sandhi + 6 Manvantaras+sandhis + 27 caturyugas + 1 Krta Yuga had passed at the time of creation if this work.
= (4800 + 71*12000*6 + 27*12000 + 4800) deva vatsaras = 4800 + 5112000 + 324000 + 4800 deva vatsaras. = 5445600 deva vatsaras = 1960416000 solar years – Satya)
Brahma spent 47400 devavatsaras in creation. (17064000 solar years in creation).
After that, the grahas have been in motion at a constant angular velocity to the west as if overpowered (dragged) by the nakshatras.
The grahas also traverse all the rasis (zodiac signs) North-South-North at different velocities, with smallest traversing the fastest.
Bhagana means traversing through this orbit from Revati, back to Revati (*zeta Piscium – BDS).
60 vikalas (seconds) = 1 kala (minute), 60 kalas = 1 Amsa (degree).
In a Caturyuga, the sun, mercury, venus and the s’igrochha (farthest orbital point from the centre of the earth – BDS) of mars, saturn and jupiter, make 4320000 revolutions – (which is naturally the exactly the same.. since it is the earth who is really spinning – Satya).
… What follows is a lot of calculations for computing intercalary months and days and the numbers for the exact orbits of various grahas, their mandocchas etc.. which the interested reader can get from the original translation….
… there is also a formula for determining the name of the vatsara Vijaya, (Prabhava, Vibhava etc) based on Jupiter’s elapsed orbits in the yuga and its current position in the zodiac….
*At the end of this Krta Yuga, the mean places of all the planets, except their nodes and apogees coincide with each other at the beginning of the first point of Mesha Rasi (Aries)!*
… The S.S. (59) treats the earth as a sphere, and gives the correct formula for computing the circumference of the earth and gives a value of square root of 10 for Pi. It gives the diameter of the earth as 1600 Yojanas.
… then there are lots of trignometric rules to calculate the position of a graha at midnight at different places.
… the Bhu Madhya Rekha (0 longitude) is defined as the line that connects the North Pole, Rohitaka, Kurukshetra, Ujjaini and Lanka. It does not refer to the equator. (For someone of the level of Sri Krishna, calculating when the eclipse would occur at Kurukshetra must have been child’s play.)
…. there are rules to calculate the timing of eclipses over different places.
Chapter 2 gives us how to compute the exact location of the grahas telling us how to account for the deities or winds who not only cause the north south motion through the rasis but also cause the grahas to become faster, slower or steady in their motion. Though today we do not agree with the “cause” of the observed motion, we agree with the observed motion. We also know that the calculations are correct, though complex, influenced as they are by geo-centricity.
Authorship and CopyRight Notice : All Rights Reserved : Satya Sarada Kandula