Geography as per Narada Purana
“The universe is made of five elements (bhuta). Their names are kshiti (the earth) apa (the water). teja (the energy), marut (the wind) and vyoma (the sky).
The universe is divided into fourteen regions (bhuvanas or lokas). Seven of them form the upper regions and are known as
- janaloka and
* I think the translator may have left out Tapa loka – Satya
There ae seven more regions that constiute the lower regions or the underworld. Their names are
- rasatala and
- patala. The word patala is also used to signify all of the underworld as a region.
Each of the fourteen regions has its own inhabitants, mountains and rivers.
The earth is bhuloka and the earth is split up into seven regions (dvipas). They are known as
- Shakadvipa and
Bhuloka also has seven oceans named
- Dughdha and
Bharatavarsha lies in Jambudvipa.
It is that part of the land which is bounded by the Lavana ocean on the south and the Himalaya mountains on the north. Bharatavarsha is a wonderful place to live in, and even the gods desire to be born in this land. Bharatavarsha is known as karmabhumi.”