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Posts Tagged ‘Nakshatras

Saptarishi (Great Bear) Positions according to Varahamihira and Vateswara


Reference : Saptarishi Calendar,
See Also : Nakshatras, Grahas, Varas, Rasis, Masas, Rtus
Note : I am in the process of finding and verifying some original sources (Vishnu Puranam etc).. in order to clear up some matters. For eg : from the data below it appears that Kaliyuga Raja Vrttantam is counting “backwards” from Makha to Aslesha and that Vishnu Puranam is counting “forwards” from Makha to Poorvashada.
  • Saptarishi Position at the Time of Parikshit’s Birth and Yudhisthira’s Coronation : 74/75 years after Makha beginning : 3138 BCE
  • Saptarishi Position at 0 Kaliyuga : 3102 BCE
    • Aslesha (given : computed by author ): direction counting backwards by 25 years
    • Kaliyuga Raja Vruttantam
  • Saptarishi Position at MahaPadma Nanda (Chanakya): Poorvashada middle (observed):
  • Saptarishi Position at the beginning of the Saka Era referred by Varahamihira : (beginning 2526 years after Yudhisthira.. as calculated by Varahamihira, using the 100 year per nakshatra rule given by Vrddha Garga and quoted by Varahamihira).
    • We calculate Aslesha counting forwards.
    • We calculate Poorvaphalguni counting backwards.
      • Brihat Samhita
  • Saptarishi Position at the beginning of Saka Era referred by Vateswara :
    • Vateswara Siddhanta
    • 4000-3102 = 898 BCE
    • 4000 years corresponds to a movement of 42.3 nakshatras as per Vateswara; 42.3-27=15.3
    • This brings us to the beginning of Uttarashada (counting backwards).
    • This brings us the to the beginning of Uttarabhadra (counting forwards).

Saptarishi Position presently : Poorva Phalguni as per Vateswara, Hasta as per Varahamihira, counting backwards.

  • Arudra according to me.. just looking at the sky map,, I may be wrong
  • If Arudra is right then Bharata War is 58 centuries ago, not 51 centuries ago…
Authorship and Copyright Notice : All Rights Reserved : Satya Sarada Kandula

Nakshatras


Reference : History of Astronomy in India. Indian National Science Academy.1985. Chapter 9. Indian Calendar from Post-Vedic period to AD 1900. Page 274: S.K. Chatterjee and A.K. Chakravarthy.

What is the ecliptic?

The ecliptic is the apparent yearly path of the Sun seen from the earth on the background of the stars.

What is the zodiac or rasi chakra?

The moon and planets are found within a belt of width eight degrees on either side of the ecliptic. This belt is known as the rasi chakra, or the zodiac.  ( See : Measuring distances in degrees in the sky using your hand)

What is a nakshatra?

To indicate day to day position of the moon in relation to the stars, the zodiac has been divided into 27 equal parts, from a fixed initial point in the ecliptic. Each part is known as a nakshatra or nakshatra division. and it covers 13 deg 20 min or 800 min of arc of the ecliptic.

Each Nakshatra division is named after a selected star which is generally prominent or traditionally well known and is broadly equally spaced in the zodiac. These identifying stars are called yogataras.

Lune

Not all Yogataras are located in the lune of the nakshatra division.  for eg Ardra, Swati, Jyesta, Poorvashada, Uttarashada, Sravana and Dhanishta.

The word Nakshatra in the context of panchangas means the nakshatra division signified by that Nakshatra.

See Also : Nakshatras, Grahas, Varas, Rasis, Masas, Rtus

Authorship and Copyright Notice : All Rights Reserved : Satya Sarada Kandula

Rights for sourced material vest with the source.

Nakshatra English Names


There are some variations from source to source.. so I thought it will be good to collect as I find them

Source

1 Aswini Beta Arietis
2 Bharani 35 Arietis
3 Kritika Eta Tauri
4 Rohini Aldebaran
5 Mrigasira Lambda Orionis
6 Aridra Alpha Orionis
7 Punarvasu Beta Geminorium
8 Pushya Delta Cancri
9 Aslesha Alpha Hydroe
10 Magha Regulus
11 Poorvaphalguni Delta Leonis
12 Uttaraphalguni Beta Leonis
13 Hasta Delta Corvi
14 Chitra Spica Virginis -Vegus
15 Swati Arcturus
16 Visakha Alpha Libroe
17 Anuradha Delta Scorpio
18 Jyehsta Antares
19 Moola Lambda Scorpio
20 Poorvashadha Delta Sagittari
21 Uttarashadha Sigma sagittari
22 Sravana Alpha Aquiloe
23 Dhanshita Beta Delphinum
24 Satabisha Lambda Aquarius
25 Poorvabhadrapada Alpha Pegasi
26 Uttarabhadrapada Gama Pegasi
27 Revati Zeta Piscum

Written by Satya Sarada Kandula

December 25, 2009 at 6:16 am

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Nakshatras in the Chaldean Creation Legend


Source :

Fifth Tablet of Creation Legend.

Obverse.

1. It was delightful, all that was fixed by the great gods.

2. Stars, their appearance [in figures] of animals he arranged.

3. To fix the year through the observation of their constellations,

4. twelve months (or signs) of stars in three rows he arranged,

5. from the day when the year commences unto the close.

6. He marked the positions of the wandering stars (planets) to shine in their courses,

7. that they may not do injury, and may not trouble any one,

8. the positions of the gods Bel and Hea he fixed with him.

9. And he opened the great gates in the darkness shrouded

10. the fastenings were strong on the left and right.

11. In its mass (i.e. the lower chaos) he made a boiling,

12. the god Uru (the moon) he caused to rise out, the night he overshadowed,

13. to fix it also for the light of the night, until the shining of the day,

14. That the month might not be broken, and in its amount be regular.

15. At the beginning of the month, at the rising of the night,

16. his horns are breaking through to shine on the heaven.

17. On the seventh day to a circle he begins to swell,

18. and stretches towards the dawn further.

Written by Satya Sarada Kandula

December 17, 2009 at 5:35 pm

Rules of Architecture and Construction as per the Matsya Maha Purana


Source and Reference :

“The science of architecture owes its origin to eighteen great sages. Their names are Bhrigu, Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvakarma, Maya, Narada, Nagnajita, Vishalaksha, Puranadara, Brahma, Kartikeya, Nandishvara, Shounaka, Garga, Vasudeva, Aniruddha, Shukra and Brihaspati .

  1. The building of a house should never be begun in the month of Chaitra. A person who does this is sure to contract a disease.
  2. The month of Vaishakha is a good time to begin. One who does this is bound to own many cows.
  3. The months of Agrahayana, Magha and Falguna are also auspicious. An individual who begins the task in Agrahayana has full granaires, one who begins it in Magha attains all sorts of riches and one who begins it in Falguna obtains gold and sons.
  4. Ashada is also a good month to start. Servants and animals are owed by a person who starts the building in Ashada.
  5. The months of Jyaishtha, Shravana, Bhadra, Ashvina and Pousha are inauspicious. If you start in Jyaishta, you will die soon; you will also die if you begin in Shravana; begin in Bhadra and you will suffer from all manner of losses; your wife will die if you start the task in the month of Ashvina; and all your goods will be stolen if you start in the month of Pousha.
  6. It is best to begin the building of a house when the nakshatras Ashvini, Rohini, Mula, Uttarabhadrapada, Uttarashada, Uttarafalguni or Mrigashira are in the sky.
  7. Any day is permissible with the exception of Sunday and Tuesday.
  8. The ground on which the house is to be build has to be tested. A pit should be dug and a sapling planted. If the sapling thrives and growns into a big tree, the ground has been well-chosen. But if the tree withers away or does not grow into a strong tree, one ought to move somewhere else.
  9. A diagram is then drawn on the ground, in the form of a square with eighty-one smaller squares inside it. That is the larger square will be subdivided into nine squares along very side. Nine multiplied by nine gives the eighty- one smaller squares. In each of these eight-one smaller squares, a specific god has to be worshipped.

Different types of houses.

  1. A house that has doors on all four sides is known as a sarvatobhadra. Such a configuration is recommended for palaces or temples.
  2. A house that does not have a door to the west is known as a nandyavarta;
  3. a house that does not have a door to the south is known as a varddhamana; a
  4. house that does not have a door to the east is known as a svastika;
  5. and a house that does not have a door to the north is known as ruchaka.
  • A palace should be one hundred and eight cubits (hand-lengths) in length.
  • If a prince, and not a king, is to live in the palace, sixty-six cubits are the recommmended length.
  • Other recommended lengths are sixty-four cubits for generals,
  • forty-eight cubits for ministers,
  • twenty-eight cubits for artisans and
  • twelve cubits for messengers and guards.
  • Priests and physicians are entitled to twenty-four cubits.
  • An ordinary householder should build a house that is thirty-two cubits in length.
  • The sole exception is an outcast, he is entitled to only sixteen cubits.
  • There should not be any trees in the front of the house.
  • But trees have to be planted towards the back.
  • The wood with which the house has to be built must be carefully chosen. One must not cut down a tree that birds have built nests on.
  • Certain trees must never be chosen. These include those that have been gashed by an elephant or struck by lightning.
  • They also include trees that grow near temples or at the of rivers and trees from cremation grounds.
  • Neem trees and mango trees must never be used for building houses.
  • The height of the tree should be multiplied by its circumference.  This product should now be divided by eight. If the remainder that is left is one, the timber can be used in building any part of the house. Such timber is known as dhvaja.
  • When the remainder is two the timber is known vrisha and should be used in constructing the western door.
  • When the remainder is three the timber is called simha and should be used for the northern door.
  • The name is vrishabha if the remainder is four and such wood should be used for the eastern door.
  • When the remainder is five the timber is given the name of hasti and should be used for the southern door.

Deities must to be installed in temples.

  1. Vishnu’s image should have either eight hands or four. If there are eight hands, the arms to the right should hold a shankha (concha-shell), a gada (mace), a shara (arrow) and a padma (lotus). The arms to the left should hold dhanu (bow), a padma, a shankha and a chakra (bladed-discus). If there are four hands, the mace and the lotus should be to the right and the chakra and the conch-shell to the left. Vishnu will be shown standing on the world.
  2. Garuda, the king of the birds, bears him around Garuda will therefore be shown at Vishnu’s feet, towards the right. Lakshmi’s image must always be to the left of Vishnu’s image and Lakshmi will hold a lotus in her hand.
  3. The best deities are made out of gold, silver, copper, jewels, stone, wood, from alloys.
  4. The proportions of the various parts of the body must be exactly right.
  5. Shiva’s image must have matted hair and he must wear a crescent moon on his forehead. The deities must convey the impression that Shiva is sixteen years old. Shiva must be dressed in tigerskin and must be garlanded with snakes. A peacock feather should adorn on ear. If a spear, a rod or a trident are shown, they must be to the right. And if a skull, a snake or a sword are shown, they must be to the left. When Shiva is show riding a bull, his image has two hands. But when he is shown in a dancing posture, the image has ten hands. If the intention is to show him destroying Tripura, the image must have sixteen hands.
  6. There is one particular image that deserves special mention. This is known as arddhanarishvara, half-male and half-female. The Shiva part of the image will be to the right and the Parvati part of the image will be to the left. The right hand of the image will hold a skull or a trident and the left hand of the image will hold a lotus or a mirror.
  7. There is another type of image known as Uma-Maheshvara. In this case, there are two separate images, one of Shiva and the other of Parvati. The deities of various other gods and goddesses are also described.

Pavilions (mandapa)

These are classified in terms of the number of pillars that are used in their construction, and there are twenty-seven main types of pavilions.

(I) A pushpaka pavilion has sixty-four pillars.

(II) A pushpabhadra pavilion has sixty-two pillars.

(III) A suvrata pavilion has sixty pillars.

(IV) An amritanandana pavilion has fifty-eight pillars.

(V) A doushalya pavilion has fifty-six pillars.

(VI) A buddhisamkirna pavilion has fifty-four pillars.

(VII) A gajabhadra pavilion has fifty-two pillars.

(VIII) A jayavaha pavilion has fifty pillars.

(IX) A shrivatsa pavilion has forty-eight pillars.

(X) A vijaya pavilion has forty-six pillars.

(XI) A vastukirti pavilion has forty-four pillars.

(XII) A shrutinjaya pavilion has forty-two pillars.

(XIII) A yajnabhadra pavilion has forty pillars.

(XIV) A vishala pavilion has thirty-eight pillars.

(XV) A sushlishta pavilion has thirty-six pillars.

(XVI) A shatrumardana pavilion has thrity-four pillars.

(XVII) A bhagapancha pavilion has thrity-two pillars.

(XVIII) A nandana pavilion has thirty pillars.

(XIX) A manava pavilion has twenty-eight pillars.

(XX) A manabhadraka pavilion has twenty-six pillars.

(XXI) A sugriva pavilion has twenty-four pillars.

(XXII) A hairta pavilion has twenty-two pillars.

(XXIII) A karnikara pavilion has twenty pillars.

(XXIV) A shatarddhika pavilion has eighteen pillars.

(XXV) A simha pavilion has sixteen pillars.

(XXVI) A shyamabhadra pavilion has fourteen pillars.

(XXVII) A samudra pavilion has twelve pillars. Pavilions should be triangular, semi-circular or rectangular.”

All Rights Reserved : Satya Sarada Kandula

Daksha : He named the fixed stars!


Please click on this link to find the lovely story of How Daksha named the nakshatras (fixed stars).

Authorship and Copyright Notice : All Rights Reserved : Satya Sarada Kandula

Written by Satya Sarada Kandula

October 4, 2009 at 7:17 pm

Nakshatras in the Mahabharata


Source : Anusasana Parva of the Mahabharata, as translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli.

Dharmaraja asked Bhishma about the effect of making Danas under different nakshatras.

Then Bhishma told him what Narada had explained to Devaki. (..and I now share it with you).

Devaki then explained it to her daughters-in-law, the wives of Sri Krishna.

  1. ‘By gratifying, O blessed lady, deserving Brahmanas with Payasa mixed with ghee, under the constellation Krittika one attains to regions of great happiness. (Easy to do even today)
  2. Under the constellation Rohini, one should for freeing oneself from the debt one owes to the Brahmanas make gift unto them of many handfuls of venison along with rice and ghee and milk, and other kinds of edibles and drinks.
  3. One giving away a cow with a calf under the constellation called Somadaivata (or Mrigasiras), proceeds from this region of human beings to a region in heaven of great felicity.
  4. One undergoing a fast and giving away Krisara mixed with sesame, transcends all difficulties in the next world, including those mountains with rocks sharp as razors. (This must be for Arudra).
  5. By making gifts, O beautiful lady, of cakes and other food under the constellation Punarvasu one becomes possessed of personal beauty and great fame and takes birth in one’s next life in a family in which there is abundance of food.
  6. Making a gift of wrought or unwrought gold, under the constellation Pushya, one shines in effulgence like Soma himself in regions of surrounding gloom.
  7. He who makes a gift, under the constellation Aslesha, of silver of a bull, becomes freed from every fear and attains to great affluence and prosperity.
  8. By making a gift, under the constellation Magha, of earthen dishes filled with sesame, one becomes possessed of children and animals in this world and attains to felicity in the next.
  9. For making gifts unto Brahmanas, under the constellation called Purva-Phalguni of food mixed with Phanita the giver observing a fast the while, reward is great prosperity both here and hereafter.
  10. By making a gift, under the constellation called Uttara-Phalguni, of ghee and milk with rice called Shashthika, one attains to great honours in heaven. Whatever gifts are made by men under the constellation of Uttara-Phalguni produce great merit, which, again, becomes inexhaustible. This is very certain.
  11. Observing a fast the while, the person that makes, under the constellation Hasta, a gift of a car with four elephants, attains to regions of great felicity that are capable of granting the fruition of every wish.
  12. By making a gift, under the constellation Chitra, of a bull and of good perfumes, one sports in bliss in regions of Apsaras like the deities sporting in the woods of Nandana.
  13. By making gifts of wealth under the constellation Swati, one attains to such excellent regions as one desires and wins besides great fame.
  14. By making gifts, under constellation Visakha, of a bull, and a cow that yields a copious measure of milk, a cart full of paddy, with a Prasanga for covering the same, and also cloths for wear, a person gratifies the Pitris and the deities attains to inexhaustible merit in the other world. Such a person never meets with any calamity and gratifies the Pitris and the deities and attains to inexhaustible merit in the other world. Such a person never meets with any calamity and certainly reaches heaven. By making gifts unto the Brahmanas of whatever articles they solicit, one attains to such means of subsistence as one desires, and becomes rescued from hell and every calamity that visits a sinner after death. This is the certain conclusion of the scriptures.
  15. By making gifts, under the constellation Anuradha of embroidered cloth and other vestments and of food, observing a fast the while, one becomes honoured in heaven for a hundred Yugas.
  16. By making a gift under the constellation Jyeshtha, of the potherb called Kalasaka with the roots, one attains to great prosperity as also to such an end as is desirable.
  17. By making unto Brahmanas a gift under the constellation Mula, of fruits and roots, with a restrained soul, one gratifies the Pitris and attains to a desirable end.
  18. By making under the constellation Purvashadha, a gift, unto a Brahmana conversant with the Vedas and of good family and conduct, of cups filled with curds, while one is in the observance of a fast, one takes birth in one’s next life in a family possessed of abundant kine.
  19. One obtains the fruition of every wish, by making gifts, under the constellation Uttarashadha, of jugs full of barley-water, with ghee and inspissated juice of sugarcane in abundance.
  20. By making a gift under the conjunction called Abhijit, of milk with honey and ghee unto men of wisdom, a righteous person attains to heaven and becomes an object of attention and honour there.
  21. By making under the conjunction Sravana, a gift of blankets or other cloth of thick texture, one roves freely through every region of felicity, riding on a white car of pure resplendence.
  22. By making with a restrained soul, under the constellation Dhanishtha, a gift of a vehicle with bulls yoked thereto, or heaps of cloths and wealth, one at once attains to heaven in one’s next life.
  23. By making gifts, under the constellation Satabhisha, of perfumes with Aquilaria Agallocha and sandalwood, one attains in the next world to the companionship of Apsaras as also eternal perfumes of diverse kinds.
  24. By making gifts, under the constellation Purva-Bhadrapada, or Rajamasha, one attains to great happiness in the next life and becomes possessed of an abundant stock of every kind of edibles and fruits.
  25. One who makes, under the constellation Uttara, a gift of mutton, gratifies the Paris by such an act attains to inexhaustible merit in the next world.
  26. Unto one who makes a gift, under the constellation Revati, of a cow with a vessel of white copper for milking her, the cow so given away approaches in the next world, ready to grant the fruition of every wish.
  27. By making a gift, under the constellation Aswini, of a car with steeds yoked thereto, one is born in one’s next life in a family possessed of numerous elephants and steeds and cars, and becomes endued with great energy.
  28. By making, under the constellation Bharani, a gift unto the Brahmanas of kine and sesame, one acquires in one’s next life great fame and an abundance of kine.’

Written by Satya Sarada Kandula

June 15, 2009 at 3:42 pm

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